Sunday, December 26, 2010



1483 Birth of Martin Luther
1517 Martin Luther nails his 95 Theses to the door of a Roman Catholic Church

1520 Martin Luther is excommunicated by Pope

1521 The Roman Catholic Church convenes the Diet of Worms to address Luther

1521 Birth of Peter Kanis (Canisius) (d. 1597) in the Dutch of Geulders in modern day Netherlands- important Counter Reformation figure, such as in retaking Bavaria after 1560

1524-1526 German Peasants WarAlso see: Hussite Wars (1419-1434) and Bundschuh Movement (cir 1475-1525)

1525 [East] Prussia Becomes Europe's 1st LUTHERAN STATE
1534 England's King Henry XIII (1492-1547), seeking a divorce denied by Rome, establishes himself as head of the 'Anglican' Church

1534 Íñigo López de Loyola ( 1491-1556) establishes the 'Society of Jesus' later known as the Jesuit Order under the funding of the ultra elite Farnese family

The Society was founded by St. Ignatius of Loyola, who after being wounded in a battle, experienced a religious conversion and composed the Spiritual Exercises in order to help others to follow Christ more closely. In 1534, Ignatius gathered six young men, including St. Francis Xavier and Bl. Pierre Favre, and together they professed vows of poverty and chastity, and then later, obedience, including a special vow of obedience to the Pope. Rule 13 of Ignatius' Rules for Thinking with the Church said: "That we may be altogether of the same mind and in conformity ..], if [the Church] shall have defined anything to be black which to our eyes appears to be white, we ought in like manner to pronounce it to be black.".[3] Ignatius' plan of the order's organization was approved by Pope Paul III in 1540 by the bull containing the Formula of the Institute.
1536 William Tyndale (b. 1490) is executed by Roman officials for 'heresy' in translating the Bible into English, convinced "that the way to God was through His word and that scripture should be available even to common people".

1545-1563 Council of Trent

1546 Martin Luther dies

1546-1547 Schmalkaldic War(ended with the 1555 Peace Treaty of Augsburg between Holy Roman Empire Charles V and the Schmalkaldic Alliance)

1569 Poland's King Sigismund II, (1548-1572, b. 1520) last of the Jagiellons, creates Poland-Lithuania Commonwealth via the Union of Lublin
1562-1598 French Wars of Religion
(ended with the 1598 Edict of Nantes granting religious toleration to French Protestants)

1572 St Bartholomew's Day Massacre - a targeted group of assassinations, followed by a wave of Roman Catholic mob violence, both directed against the Huguenots (French Calvinist Protestants), during the French Wars of Religion. Traditionally believed to have been instigated by Catherine de' Medici, the mother of King Charles IX, the massacre took place four days after the wedding of the king's sister Margaret to the Protestant Henry III of Navarre (the future Henry IV of France). This marriage was an occasion for which many of the most wealthy and prominent Huguenots had gathered in largely Catholic Paris.

The massacre began on 23 August 1572 (the eve of the feast of Bartholomew the Apostle), two days after the attempted assassination of Admiral Gaspard de Coligny, the military and political leader of the Huguenots. The king ordered the killing of a group of Huguenot leaders, including Coligny, and the slaughter spread throughout Paris. Lasting several weeks, the massacre expanded outward to other urban centres and the countryside. Modern estimates for the number of dead across France vary widely, from 5,000 to 30,000.

The massacre also marked a turning point in the French Wars of Religion. The Huguenot political movement was crippled by the loss of many of its prominent aristocratic leaders, as well as many re-conversions by the rank and file, and those who remained were increasingly radicalized. Though by no means unique, it "was the worst of the century's religious massacres."[2] Throughout Europe, it "printed on Protestant minds the indelible conviction that Catholicism was a bloody and treacherous religion".[3]

1573 Poland-Lithuania Commonwealth Warsaw Confederation  extending religious tolerance to nobility and free persons, considered the formal beginning of religious freedom in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and in fact is the first such document in Europe. While it did not prevent all conflict based on religion, it did make the Commonwealth a much safer and more tolerant place than most of contemporaneous Europe, especially during the subsequent Thirty Years' War.[2]

1585-1604 Anglo-Spanish War (Dutch Revolt)

1605 Guy Fawkes Plot with at least 12 conspirators to blow up the English House of Lords via tons of explosives within rented area beneath, under the reign of James I (of the 'King James' Bible), who became King James VI of Scotland, and in 1603, inherited the crowns of England and Ireland becoming King James I of Great Britain.

1594-1603 9 Years War Ireland

1568-1648 80 Years War (for Dutch Independence)

1618-1648 1st 30 Years War

1648 is the year fraudulantly marked by establishment historians as the end of the counter reformation- a deception a logical result of the Jesuit Order's emphasis and infiltration of mass education.

1685 Revocation of the Edict of Nantes by French 'Sun King' Louis XIV

1688-1697 War of the Grand Alliance (or 2nd 9 Years War)

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