Remember. The 31 of July is the Day of Ignatius Loyola.
… He died in July 1556, was beatified by Pope Paul V in 1609, canonized by Pope Gregory XV in 1622, and declared patron of all spiritual retreats by Pope Pius XI in 1922. Ignatius' feast day is celebrated on July 31. Ignatius is a foremost patron saint of soldiers, the Society of Jesus, the Basque Country, and the provinces of Guipúzcoa and Biscay.
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From: maxi aguaisol <firstname.lastname@example.org>Subject: RE: LIKELY OLYMPIC SACRIFICE RITUAL DATE? - AUGUST 1: PAGAN HARVEST FESTIVAL ("LAMMAS"/"LUGHNASADH") & ROMAN CATHOLIC LITURGICAL FEAST ("ST PETER IN CHAINS") - FEAST OF FIRST FRUITS; ANIMAL SACRIFICE; FUNERAL GAMES; LEVELLING OF CONSTRUCTED TOWERS ...Date: 27 July 2012 18:06:53 GMT+01:00To: TS <email@example.com>Remember. The 31 of July is the Day of Ignatius Loyola.
Sent: 27 Jul 2012 20:04:40 GMT
To: TS - firstname.lastname@example.org
Subject: LIKELY OLYMPIC SACRIFICE RITUAL DATE? - AUGUST 1: PAGAN HARVEST FESTIVAL ("LAMMAS"/"LUGHNASADH") & ROMAN CATHOLIC LITURGICAL FEAST ("ST PETER IN CHAINS") - FEAST OF FIRST FRUITS; ANIMAL SACRIFICE; FUNERAL GAMES; LEVELLING OF CONSTRUCTED TOWERS ...LIKELY OLYMPIC SACRIFICE RITUAL DATE? - AUGUST 1: PAGAN HARVEST FESTIVAL ("LAMMAS"/"LUGHNASADH") & ROMAN CATHOLIC LITURGICAL FEAST ("ST PETER IN CHAINS") - FEAST OF FIRST FRUITS; ANIMAL SACRIFICE; FUNERAL GAMES; LEVELLING OF CONSTRUCTED TOWERS ...The Olympic Games (Ancient Greek: τὰ Ὀλύμπια – ta Olympia; Modern Greek: Ὀλυμπιακοὶ Ἀγῶνες (Katharevousa), Ολυμπιακοί Αγώνες (Dimotiki) – Olympiakoi Agones) were a series of athletic competitions held for representatives of various city-states of Ancient Greece held in honor of Zeus. The exact origins of the Games are shrouded in myth and legend but records indicate that they began in 776 BC in Olympia in Greece. They were celebrated until 394 AD when they were suppressed byTheodosius I as part of the campaign to impose Christianity as a state religion. The Games were usually held every four years, or olympiad, as the unit of time came to be known. During a celebration of the Games, an Olympic Truce was enacted so that athletes could travel from their countries to the Games in safety. The prizes for the victors were wreaths of laurel leaves. The Games became a political tool used by city-states to assert dominance over their rivals. Politicians would announce political alliances at the Games, and in times of war, priests would offer sacrifices to the gods for victory. The Games were also used to help spread Hellenistic culture throughout the Mediterranean. The Olympics also featured religious celebrations and artistic competitions. A Statue of Zeus, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, was erected at Olympia to preside over the Games, though it no longer stands. Sculptors and poets would congregate each olympiad to display their works of art to would-be patrons.-The ancient Olympics were as much a religious festival as an athletic event. The Games were held in honor of the Greek god Zeus, and on the middle day of the Games, 100 oxen would be sacrificed to him. Over time Olympia, site of the Games, became a central spot for the worship of the head of the Greek pantheon and a temple, built by the Greek architect Libon was erected on the mountaintop. The temple was one of the largest Doric temples in Greece. The sculptor Pheidias created a statue of the god made of gold and ivory. It stood 42 feet (13 m) tall. It was placed on a throne in the temple. The statue became one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. As the historian Strabo put it,"... the glory of the temple persisted ... on account both of the festal assembly and of the Olympian Games, in which the prize was a crown and which were regarded as sacred, the greatest games in the world. The temple was adorned by its numerous offerings, which were dedicated there from all parts of Greece."===
In 1962 The Festival of Lughnasa, a study of Lughnasadh by folklorist Máire MacNeill, was published. MacNeill drew on medieval writings and on surveys and studies from throughout Ireland and Britain. Her conclusion was that the evidence testified to an ancient Celtic festival on 1 August that involved the following:===[A] solemn cutting of the first of the corn of which an offering would be made to the deity by bringing it up to a high place and burying it; a meal of the new food and of bilberries of which everyone must partake; a sacrifice of a sacred bull, a feast of its flesh, with some ceremony involving its hide, and its replacement by a young bull; a ritual dance-play perhaps telling of a struggle for a goddess and a ritual fight; an installation of a head on top of the hill and a triumphing over it by an actor impersonating Lugh; another play representing the confinement by Lugh of the monster blight or famine; a three-day celebration presided over by the brilliant young god or his human representative. Finally, a ceremony indicating that the interregnum was over, and the chief god in his right place again.William Hone speaks in The Every-Day Book (1838) of a later festive Lammas day sport common among Scottish farmers near Edinburgh. He says that they "build towers...leaving a hole for a flag-pole in the centre so that they may raise their colours." When the flags over the many peat-constructed towers were raised, farmers would go to others' towers and attempt to "level them to the ground." A successful attempt would bring great praise. However, people were allowed to defend their towers, and so everyone was provided with a "tooting-horn" to alert nearby country folk of the impending attack and the battle would turn into a "brawl." According to Hone, more than four people had died at this festival and many more were injured. At the day's end, races were held, with prizes given to the townspeople.Lammas is a Neo-Pagan holiday, often called Lughnasadh, celebrating the first harvest and the reaping of grain. It is a cross-quarter holiday halfway between theSummer Solstice (Litha) and the Autumnal Equinox (Mabon). In the northern hemisphere, Lammas takes place around August 1 with the Sun near the midpoint of Leo in the tropical zodiac ...===
also known as Lambess
Observed by England
Type Cultural, Religious (Pagan, Christian) Date 1 August (northern hemisphere)
1 February (southern hemisphere)
Funeral GamesFirst Fruits
Observances Loaves made from the grain collected at harvest. Related to Lughnasadh
In some English-speaking countries in the Northern Hemisphere, August 1 is Lammas Day (Anglo-Saxon hlaf-mass, "loaf-mas"), the festival of the wheat harvest, and is the first harvest festival of the year. On this day it was customary to bring to church a loaf made from the new crop, which began to be harvested at Lammastide. The loaf was blessed, and in Anglo-Saxon England it might be employed afterwards to work magic: A book of Anglo-Saxon charms directed that the lammas bread be broken into four bits, which were to be placed at the four corners of the barn, to protect the garnered grain. In many parts of England, tenants were bound to present freshly harvested wheat to their landlords on or before the first day of August. In the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, where it is referred to regularly, it is called "the feast of first fruits". The blessing of first fruits was performed annually in both the Eastern and Western Churches on the first or the sixth of August (the latter being the feast of the Transfiguration of Christ).Lammas coincides with the feast of St. Peter in Chains, commemorating St. Peter's miraculous deliverance from prison.===
Celebrated on August 1, it is a liturgical feast (commemorating the Liberation of Saint Peter) in the pre-1962 General Calendar of the Roman Rite (see the Tridentine Calendar, the General Roman Calendar as in 1954 and the General Roman Calendar of Pope Pius XII). Traditional Roman Catholics continue to celebrate the feast day of "St Peter's Chains" either as a Greater-Double or a Double Major feast.===Lughnasadh (pronounced loo-nə-sə; Irish: Lúnasa; Scottish Gaelic: Lùnastal; Manx: Luanistyn) is a traditional Gaelic holiday celebrated on 1 August in the northern hemisphere and 1 February in the southern. It originated as a harvest festival, corresponding to the Welsh Calan Awst and the English Lammas.
Lughnasadh Also called Lúnasa (Modern Irish)
Lùnastal (Scottish Gaelic)
Luanistyn (Manx Gaelic)
Observed by Historically: Gaels
Today: Irish people, Scottish people, Manx people, Celtic neopagans
Pagan (Celtic polytheism,Celtic Neopaganism, Wicca)
Significance Beginning of the harvest season Begins Northern Hemisphere: Sunset on July 31
Southern Hemisphere: Sunset on January 31
Ends Northern Hemisphere: Sunset on August 1
Southern Hemisphere: Sunset on February 1
Celebrations Offering of First Fruits
Related to Calan Awst, LammasIn Irish mythology, the Lughnasadh festival is said to have been begun by the god Lugh (modern spelling: Lú) as a funeral feast and sporting competition in commemoration of his foster-mother, Tailtiu, who died of exhaustion after clearing the plains of Ireland for agriculture. The first location of the Áenach Tailteanngathering was at Tailtin, between Navan and Kells. Historically, the Áenach Tailteann was a time for contests of strength and skill and a favored time for contracting marriages and winter lodgings. A peace was declared at the festival, and religious celebrations were held. The festival survived as the Taillten Fair ...===