Friday, December 4, 2015

1897 Church Of England Lies About Coca Wine

just before the first time the Papacy has Angelo Francois Mariani at the Vatican to award him a gold medal as a benefactor of humanity- a papal warning shot?
Jesuitical Church of England Lies About Coca Wine- Confuses Vastly Different Potencies (0.6 mg to 30+mg per fluid ounce) Confusing Vin Mariani (6-7.5 mg) with Cocaine Moonshine (30+mg)

The Church of England Pulpit, and Ecclesiastical Review, Volume 44,+British+Medical+Journal,&hl=en&sa=Xamp;ved=0ahUKEwjMl7ujhLrJAhXLOyYKHa0vBcI4qgEQ6AEITTAJ#v=onepage&q=%E2%80%98The%20Dangers%20of%20Coca%20Wines%E2%80%99%2C%20British%20Medical%20Journal%2C&f=false

Saturday December 25, 1897 p 307

NOTE of warning has just been raised in the pages of the British Medical journal, which should claim the attention not only of the medical profession, but of every Temperance reformer in the country, as it reveals a danger hitherto unsuspected by the majority of us, although the facts show that the matter has already assumed grave proportions. . It appears that during the last few years coca wine has become increasingly popular as a nerve tonic or “pick me-up,” with the result that in innumerable cases its use has led to confirmed alcoholism. As coca-wine is usually made up in a highly palatable form, it is consumed not by invalids and convalescents only. but is largely-most probably chiefly-—taken by men and women who from fancied malaise think that a tonic is necessary, and, worse than all, it is given to growing girls and young children, for whom alcohol in any form should be strictly avoided. When we enquire into the composition of coca wines, we find that no definite formula exists for their preparation, and that of the various kinds now sold, some are made from coca-leaves, some from the liquid extract, and yet another kind from hydrochloride of cocaine, and not from coca at ‘all.

All, however, are equally [!] dangerous, inasmuch as there is always a sufficiently large quantity of alcohol (18 to 29 per cent.) [DW note- Vin Mariani was 16.15 per cent alcohol] to create a craving for drink, or to arouse any dormant inherited tendency to alcoholism, where such exists. The sooner that this misconception as to the true nature of coca-wines and similar preparations is abandoned, the better it will be for all concerned. As this is a social evil affecting the moral well being of our wives and daughters-probably more than our men——no means at our command should be spared to combat it, using not the intemperate and hysterical language of which so many Temperance reformers are guilty even in these fin de siècle days, but by calling in the aid of modern science let us rather teach the rising generation what the now well-proved physiological effects of alcohol are on the human body, and what heredity means in this connection. 
 The February 6, 1897 British Medical Journal ‘The Dangers of Coca Wines’, p 353

There is no doubt that the steadily increasing consumption of coca wine is a subject which calls for comment and investigation.  We find that coca wine and other medicated wines are largely sold to people who are considered, and consider themselves to be totally abstainers.  It is not uncommon to hear the mother of a family say, “I never allow my girls to touch stimulants of any kind, but give them each a glass of coca wine at eleven in the morning, and again at bedtime”. Originally coca wine was made from coca leaves, but is now commonly a solution of the alkaloid in a sweet and unusually strong alcoholic wine.  According to the Board of Trade regulations a wine containing a grain of any salt of cocaine in the ounce may be sold without a wine license; this may be the explanation of the frequency with which we see bottles of “coca champagne” exhibited in the windows of the drug stores.  Not long ago a physician reported that he had experienced considerable inconvenience from taking a glass of standardized coca wine which he had mistaken for an innocuous beverage.  Still more recently we have been furnished with details of the case of a man who thinking to abjure the use of alcoholic stimulants, drank coca wine so freely that he died of delirium tremors.  School mistresses as a rule have a deep rooted belief in the efficacy of the popular drug, and give it to their pupils on the slightest provocation, in complete ignorance of the fact that they are establishing a liking not only for alcohol, but for the far more insidious and pernicious poison cocaine.  The child who is the innocent victim of cocainism is wayward in disposition, is restless and disturbed at night, and is incapable of prolonged application.  The mania for taking narcotic stimulants is widespread, and is a distinct source of danger to the national health.  It is difficult to say at present what steps should be taken, but it is obvious that at no distant date some restrictions will have to be placed on the sale of coca wine and its cogeners.

That there is a distinction in use and abuse, as well as a recognizable difference between a mild wine adapted for the sick, and the promiscuous use of strong drink, cannot be- better shown than through the following extract of a recent letter referring to Vin Mariani:
"The dangers of alcoholism would be avoided if no other stimulant were taken for mental or physical trials than that offered by the generous Vin Mariani.


The full importance of this will be better appreciated when it is recalled that [Gustave] Mesureur is the Director of Hygiene and Public Health in Paris, France, and it was he who approved and signed the radical governmental posters against alcoholism. That his favoring sentiment is accepted by those who have personally familiarized themselves with the merits of Vin Mariani is further shown by liberal commendations from many members of the most conservative of all medical societies—The Academy of Medicine o£ Paris. France—an opinion which is supplemented by a majority of professors of the Faculty of Medicine of France.—Coca Leaf, March, 1904.

April 2, 1847 - August 19, 1925


Vin Mariani was used by the profession fully twenty years before cocaine was known in medicine.  In fact, though this preparation physicians were made familiar with the properties of coca, and this was the original and only available for of employing the remedy.  The popularity of Vin Mariani has led imitators to foster upon the profession artificial substitutes concocted by adding cocaine to wine.  Such base frauds masquerading as coca wine- a title originated by M. Mariani- have done great evil and tend to unjustly cause condemnation of all coca preparations as but false products.

Evils resulting from substitution and imitation of Vin Mariani and the abuse occasioned by these false concoctions, have led to the introduction of State laws restricting the sale of cocaine and of cocaine preparations.  From the first Mariani & Co. have been heartily in accord with such humane legislation, and as manufacturers of the standard and original Coca Wine, urge official analysis of their preparations as testimony of the confidence reposed in them by the medical profession who have long recognized the worth of Vin Mariani, and who continue to prescribe it.  It is but just to emphasize these truths and explain the difference between a true coca wine and base and dangerous impositions fortified by adding free cocaine.

Many physicians and laymen seem to think that coca partakes more or less the nature of cocaine, and that the evil effects of the latter may be produced by the former.  This is altogether incorrect.


The attention of the medical profession is earnestly directed to the various dangerous decoctions masquerading as Coca Wine.  These decoctions are intended as meretricious imitations of the standard French preparation “Vin Mariani”, which has been so widely indorsed by, and whose merits are so well known to, the medical fraternity that it would be superfluous to enter into any lengthy enumeration here of its virtue.

Investigation discloses that these so-called Coca Wines are generally variable solutions of the alkaloid cocaine, in sweetened wine of a low grade (artificial wines).  Quantities of such so-called Coca Wine have been seized by various health authorities and destroyed.  Any physician will realize the danger ensuing from the use of decoctions of such a character.

These spurious and dangerous preparations are having the effect of causing misapprehension and working an indirect injury to a really valuable drug, for the real usefulness and value of Coca, when conscientiously prepared and properly administered, have long since been recognized by the medical fraternity.

Physicians will not encounter disappointment whenever using “Vin Mariani,” the standard French Coca Wine, as an adjuvant in treatment, as a tonic stimulant, and as a restorative in cases of profound depression, aneamia, and exhaustion.  It has stood the test in practice during thirty five years, and during that period has been strongly endorsed as a reliable and standard preparation by many of the most honored names in the medical profession, both in this country and in Europe.

Physicians are, therefore, earnestly urged, when prescribing Coca, to insist that their patients procure “Vin Mariani,” thus avoiding any failure in results, and insuring positively no unpleasant or dangerous after-effects.

There have been placed on file by Mariani & Co. more than eight thousand indorsements from leading practitioners all coinciding as to the merits of “Vin Mariani.”  It can be claimed: “Never has anything less been so highly and justly praised.

1897 Medical Journal review:

Coca Wine and its Dangers served the British Medical Journal as a text last week, but it is difficult to see where the claim of that paper for further restriction to be placed on the sale of such wine comes in. The first argument employed is that, “coca wine” and other medicated wines are largely sold to people who are considered, and consider themselves, total abstainers.” But the term “wine” has a well-defined meaning, and there is no deception practiced in the matter, so if abstainers choose to take stimulants and prefer them in a comparably disagreeable form, why should other people be restricted in their use of medicated wines? Then it is stated, apparently as a grievance, that “originally coca wine was made from coca leaves, but is now commonly a solution of the alkaloid in a sweet and usually strong alcoholic wine,” and “not long ago a physician reported that he has experienced considerable inconvenience from taking a glass of standardized (sic) coca wine which he had mistaken as an innocuous beverage.” Apparently this medical writer assumes that coca wine made from the leaves contains no alcohol, and that the leaves contain no cocaine. This at least is the logical deduction from his arguments. As a matter of fact coca wine is now prepared by both methods, wine containing alcohol being used in every case, and no attempt being made to disguise the fact. Anyone, therefore, who resorts to the use of such preparations does so with his eyes open so far as the presence of alcohol is concerned.  The real danger is in the continued use of cocaine, and the possibly of risk in this direction is intensified by the varying strengths of the coca wines on the market, some containing as much as half a grain (30mg) per ounce, and others containing as little as one-hundredth of a grain (0.6mg) [with Vin Mariani at 6-7 mg]. A preparation of this nature being in active demand, the obvious remedy for the existing state of affairs might be to make coca wine official in the next British Pharmacopia.

1972 Consumer Reports Licit and Illicit Drugs footnote pp 269-270
Dr. Jarome H. Jaffee wrote (1965): "It is reported that two million Peruvians who live in the Andean highlands, or 90 percent of the adult male population, consume cocaine ... in the form of coca leaves.  In view of the fact that many of these highlanders, who have chewed coca leaves for years, abandon the practice  when transferred to a lower altitude, it does not seem appropriate to call this use of cocaine an addiction."

A Brief History of Cocaine by Toxicologist Steven Karch: 
The medical literature of the late 1800s contains dozens of reports describing severe, occasionally lethal, reactions to cocaine anesthesia. But as far as anyone knows, no one ever became ill, let alone addicted, to Vin Mariani, or any other coca-based wine. Vin Mariani contained only a very small amount of cocaine, probably less than 6 mg per ounce, not enough to cause toxicity. When combined with alcohol, however, a 6 to 8 ounce serving would have been more than enough to create feelings of well being. The real secret behind Vin Mariani's success was not even known to Mariani, and was only discovered more than a century later.
In the late 1980s, the number of cocaine-related deaths in Miami, Florida began to explode.  lee Hearn, a toxicologist with the Miami Dade County Medical Examiner office, and Deborah Mash, a neurochemist at the University of Miami, first noted that when the deceased had been drinking alcohol and using cocaine at the same time, a new molecule, somewhat like cocaine, could be detected in their urine.  These observations were confirmed by Peter Jatlow at Yale, and another group of scientists in Barcelona.  It is now clear that cocaethylene has most of the same stimulant properties as cocaine, but that it lasts much longer.  Even though the cocaine content of Mariani's wine was relatively low, mixing the cocaine with alcohol resulted in a much higher effective dose!
Coca-Cola contained even less cocaine than Vin Mariani.  According to a formulation held by the great-grandson of Frank Robinson, one of Coca-Cola's founders, 10 pounds of coca leaf were used to make 36 gallons of syrup.  Coca leaf from South America contains very little cocaine, probably less than 0.5%, and not all of that can be extracted.  Thus Coca-Cola, as originally produced, would have contained about 100 mg of cocaine per gallon (10lb=22.5 kg, 55 x 22.5 kg = 112 mg) or 1.5 mg per ounce, only one-fourth the amount of cocaine found in Vin Mariani. 

Cocaine in the potencies of a coca extract were too low to easily cause toxicity, with Vin Mariani having only 6-7.5 mg per fluid ounce. Cocaine in the potencies of a so called coca wine made with the isolated alkaloid in far higher concentrations as those of 30mg per fluid ounce or higher could conceivably be problematic.

So why did the Church of England lump these vastly different levels of potency together as “equally” dangerous?

As if different potencies were equal!

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