Friday, March 8, 2013

Pope JP2's Ideal Romish - Imperium?

concerning Poland

Was Martin Malachi trying to warn us,
hinting at something ... yet another war?
or was the description merely misleading
with Poland essentially possessing Silesia AND Ukrainia simultaneously?

The 1989 book In the Keys of This Blood by Martin Malachi includes this description of Poland's in the context of its geopolitical role in the counter reformation:
[emphasis added] The nub of the matter was, however, that any strategic reckoning of these countries, which had been newly reborn as Protestant powers, had to envisage the removal of the First Polish Republic, if their dream of the great northern Protestant alliance was ever to take flesh. In the 1500s, Poland's eyes for culture, learning, art, thought and philosophy were on Paris. Its sabers were directed to the nascent duchy of Moscow in the east, and to the European Ottoman power to the south. Its heart remained fixed on Rome. Within its own borders, it was a federation of five or six ethnic groups within a republic based on constitutional freedom of religion and worship, which fostered Catholicism, lived at peace with the Protestants in its midst, and provided Jews with legal, religous and civil automomy in a homeland away form their homeland. The country had become militarily strong, economically prosperous, politically mature, culturally advanced. Geopoliticcally, it was still the strategic plaque tournante of Central Europe. Out of Europe's total population of 97 million, only France, with a population of 15.5 million, exceeded Poland's 11.5 million. Poland's borders ran from the river Oder, in the west, to 200 kilometers beyond the riverine land of the Dnieper, in the east; and from the Baltic in the north to the river Dniester in the south. Religiously, meanwhile, Poland was still thoroughly Romanist and papal in its heart, its mind and its allegiance. As a People, as unitary nation and as a strategic linchpin, Poland therefore was the one major power standing in the way of a Northern European hegemony of the Protestant powers.
This description of a Poland extending from the Oder to the Dnieper, mixes the reality of the initial Polish state's western border cir 966, with its eastern border centuries later, after Poland's own 'drang nacht osten' cir 1340-1366, initially taking such places as Lviv-Lvow-Lemberg etc, and then 1400+, swallowing up all of present day Belorus and much of the Ukraine, occurring after its cession of the final territory of that Oder River - Silesia - in 1335.

The Oder River flows to the north, into the Baltic. It extends inland southward to the Lusatian Neisse, which itself extends to the south (since 1945 together forming the German-Polish 'Oder-Neisse line' border), with the Oder turning southeasterly along the axis of Silesia through Wroclaw (Breslau), and Opole (Oppelin), turning more southerly to Ostrava (Ostrau), and then hook to the west. By the 1500s, the context the Malachi quote cites, Poland had already relinguished control of the areas reaching the Oder. The 1335 Treaty of Trentschin ceeding Silesia to King John of Bohemia, as part of a political deal to get the latter to relinquish his claim to the position as King of Poland, while working against a rival, Władysław the Short or Elbow-high (or Ladislaus I of Poland, Polish: Władysław I Łokietek; 1261 – 2 March 1333). It was under Casmir the Great that Poland ceeded Silesia, and begins shifting east.


After Łokietek's death, the old monarch's 23 year old son became King Casimir III, later known as Kazimierz the Great (ruled 1333–1370). Unlike his father the new king had no inclination for the hardships of military life. Casimir's contemporaries did not give him much of a chance for overcoming the country's mounting difficulties or succeeding as a leader. But from the beginning, Casimir acted prudently, purchasing in 1335 John's claims to the Polish throne. In 1343, Casimir settled several high-level arbitration disputes with the Teutonic Order by a territorial compromise, culminating in the Treaty of Kalisz, a peace treaty that concluded the Polish-Teutonic War of 1326-1332. Dobrzyń Land and Kuyavia were recovered by Casimir. At that time Poland started to expand to the east and through a series of military campaigns between 1340 and 1366 Casimir had annexed the Halych–Volodymyr area of Rus'. The town of Lviv there attracted newcomers of several nationalities, was granted municipal rights in 1356, and had thus begun its career as Lwów, the main Polish center in the midst of a Rus' Orthodox population. Supported by Hungary, the Polish king in 1338 promised the Hungarian ruling house the Polish throne in the event he dies without male heirs.[45][46]

Casimir unsuccessfully tried to recover Silesia by conducting military activities against the Luxembourgs between 1343 and 1348, but then blocked the attempted separation of Silesia from the Gniezno Archdiocese by Charles IV. Later until his death he pursued the Polish claim to Silesia legally by petitioning the pope; his successors had not continued his efforts.[46]

Allied with Denmark and Western Pomerania (Gdańsk Pomerania was granted to the Order as an "eternal charity"), Casimir was able to impose some corrections on the western border. In 1365 Drezdenko and Santok became Poland's fiefs, while Wałcz district was in 1368 taken outright, severing the land connection between Brandenburg and the Teutonic state and connecting Poland with Farther Pomerania.[46]

Casimir the Great considerably solidified the country's position in both foreign and domestic affairs. Domestically, he integrated and centralized the reunited Polish state and helped develop what was considered the "Crown of the Polish Kingdom"—the state within its actual, as well as past or potential (legal from the Polish point of view) boundaries. Casimir established or strengthened kingdom-wide institutions (such as the powerful state treasury), independent of the regional, class, or royal court related interests. Internationally, the Polish king was very active diplomatically, cultivated close contacts with other European rulers and was a staunch defender of the Polish national interest. In 1364 he sponsored the Congress of Kraków, in which a number of monarchs participated, and which was concerned with the promotion of peaceful cooperation and political balance in Central Europe.[46]

Casmir, the last of the Piast dynasty, was succeeded by Louis I 'the Hungarian', King of Hungary since 1342, becomming King of Poland 1370 and holding both titles until 1382.

Louis, the champion of the church Their following campaigns "in every directions" (for example, against the Greek Catholic Serbs, the heretic Bosnians and pagan Lithuanians and Tartars) are in close connection with the political and converting ambitions of the Holy See. Louis the Great often provided military help in the inner fight of Ecclesiastic State of the Popes. Hungarian troops protected the Pope on his return from Avignon to Rome. In 1356 a letter from the Pope called him "Christ's shield, the Lord's athlete".

In the meantime Louis the Great continued his father's policy in banning the collection of papal tithe and asserting royal interest in filling church positions. In 1370, Louis financed the wars of the pope (Urban V) against the Florentines.[12] During the fight for the throne of Naples there was an intensive exchange of ministers between the Papal and the Hungarian court. After this period Papal legates visited Hungary only on very important occasions. Their duties included converting in the East, settling the Balkan situation, mediating in peace treaties. Bishop Guido's legation in 1349 was a very important one.

The Popes recognised the Turkish danger early and in this matter Pope Urban V sent his minister to Buda. In 1371 a papal legate came to Hungary to settle the dispute between King Louis and Emperor Charles IV. At the same time Hungarian legates spent months in Avignon, where - besides settling public matters - they forwarded the requests of their relatives or familiares to the Pope in the form of so-called papal requests (supplicatio).[13] [edit] Wars and CampaignsDuring his 40 years-long reign, there were only three years of peace (1342, 1375, 1376).

Louis was succeeded by Jadwiga Jadwiga (1373/4 – 17 July 1399) was monarch of Poland from 1384 to her death. Her official title was 'king' rather than 'queen', reflecting that she was a sovereign in her own right and not merely a royal consort. She was a member of the Capetian House of Anjou, the daughter of King Louis I of Hungary and Elizabeth of Bosnia. She is known in Polish as Jadwiga, in English and German as Hedwig, in Lithuanian as Jadvyga, in Hungarian as Hedvig, and in Latin as Hedvigis. She is venerated by the Roman Catholic Church as Saint Hedwig, where she is the patron saint of queens and a United Europe.[2] She was succeeded by her husband. Jadwiga was the youngest daughter of Louis I of Hungary and of Elizabeth of Bosnia. Jadwiga could claim descent from the House of Piast, the ancient native Polish dynasty on both her mother's and her father's side. Her paternal grandmother Elisabeth of Cuyavia was the daughter of King Władysław I the Elbow-high, who had reunited Poland in 1320.

Jadwiga was brought up at the royal court in Buda and Visegrád, Hungary. In 1378, she was betrothed (sponsalia de futuro) to Habsburg scion William of Austria, and spent about a year at the imperial court in Vienna, Austria. Jadwiga's father Louis had, in 1364 in Kraków, during festivities known as the Days of Kraków, also made an arrangement with his former father-in-law Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV to inter-marry their future children: Charles' son and future Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund of Luxemburg was engaged and married, as a child, to Louis' daughter and future Queen Mary. One of Louis' original plans had been to leave the kingdom of Poland to Mary, whose marriage with Sigismund was more relevant to this end as Sigismund was an heir in his own right to Poland and was intended to inherit Brandenburg, which was nearer to Poland than to Hungary. Jadwiga's destiny as Austrian consort was a better fit for Hungary, as it was an immediate neighbor of Austria. Jadwiga was well-educated and a polyglot, speaking Latin, Bosnian, Hungarian, Serbian, Polish, German,[citation needed] interested in the arts, music, science, and court life. She was also known for her piety and her admiration for Saints Mary, Martha[ambiguous], and Bridget of Sweden, as well as her patron saint, Hedwig of Andechs.

Jogaila, later Władysław II Jagiełło (help·info)[nb 1] (ca. 1362 – 1 June 1434) was Grand Duke of Lithuania (1377–1434), king-consort of Kingdom of Poland (1386–1399), and sole King of Poland (1399–1434). He ruled in Lithuania from 1377, at first with his uncle Kęstutis. In 1386, he converted Lithuania to Christianity, was baptized as Władysław, married the young queen regnant Jadwiga of Poland, and was crowned Poland's king as Władysław Jagiełło.[1] His own reign in Poland started in 1399, upon death of Queen Jadwiga, and lasted a further thirty-five years and laid the foundation for the centuries-long Polish–Lithuanian union. Władysław II was the founder of the new Jagiellon dynasty that bears his name, while pagan Jogaila was an heir to the already established house of Gediminids (Gediminid dynasty) in Grand Duchy of Lithuania; his royal dynasty ruled both states until 1572,[nb 2] and became one of the most influential dynasties in the late medieval and early modern medieval Central and Eastern Europe.[2]

Jogaila was the last pagan ruler of medieval Lithuania.

He held the title Didysis Kunigaikštis.[nb 3] As King of Poland, he pursued a policy of close alliances with Lithuania against the Teutonic Knights. The allied victory at the Battle of Grunwald in 1410, followed by the Peace of Thorn (1411), secured the Polish and Lithuanian borders and marked the emergence of the Polish–Lithuanian alliance as a significant force in Europe. The reign of Władysław II Jagiełło extended Polish frontiers and is often considered the beginning of Poland's "Golden Age".

A Logical Follow-up Article;
From Co-federates to Over Lords: the subversion of Casmir & Joseph Pildsuski's Prometheism


Casmir III
30 April 1310 – 5 November 1370

 Joseph Pilsudski

5 December 1867 – 12 May 1935


Józef Klemens Piłsudski[a] (Polish: [ˈjuzɛf piwˈsutski] ( listen), 5 December 1867 – 12 May 1935) was a Polish statesmanChief of State (1918–22), "First Marshal" (from 1920), and leader (1926–35) of the Second Polish Republic. From mid-World War I he had a major influence in Poland's politics, and was an important figure on the European political scene.[1] He is considered largely responsible for the creation of the Second Republic of Poland in 1918, 123 years after the Partitions.[2][3][4][5][6] Under Piłsudski, Poland annexed Vilnius from Lithuania following Żeligowski's Mutiny but was unable to incorporate most of his Lithuanian homeland into the newly resurrected Polish State.[7]

Early in his political career, Piłsudski became a leader of the Polish Socialist Party. Concluding, however, that Poland's independence would have to be won by force of arms, he created the Polish Legions. In 1914 he anticipated the outbreak of a European war, the Russian Empire's defeat by the Central Powers, and the Central Powers' defeat by the western powers.[8] When World War I broke out, he and his Legions fought alongside the Austro-Hungarian and German Empire's to ensure Russia's defeat. In 1917, with Russia faring badly in the war, he withdrew his support from the Central Powers.

From November 1918, when Poland regained independence, until 1922 Piłsudski was Poland's Chief of State. In 1919–21 he commanded Poland's forces in the Polish-Soviet War. In 1923, with the Polish government dominated by his opponents, particularly the National Democrats, he withdrew from active politics. Three years later, he returned to power with the May 1926 coup d'état, and became the de facto ruler of Poland. An Italian fascist ambassador to Warsaw described him as "a liberal democrat in the clothes of an old-world knight".[9] From then until his death in 1935, he concerned himself primarily with military and foreign affairs.

For at least thirty years until his death, Piłsudski pursued, with varying degrees of intensity, two complementary strategies, intended to enhance Poland's security: "Prometheism", which aimed at breaking up, successively, Imperial Russia and the Soviet Union into their constituent nations; and the creation of an Intermarum federation, comprising Poland and several of her neighbors. Though a number of his political acts remain controversial, Piłsudski's memory is held in high esteem by his compatriots.[10][11][12][13]

Keys of this Blood

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